Electronic Government: Design, Applications and Management
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That portal includes 2 e-services, topics from 70 agencies. The committee develops a Regional Data Center too. That Datacenter will be opened in The e-Government practice has been slow both in adoption and practice in Nepal. The key functions identified by the NITB are: . While it clearly pursued efficiency gains and improved transparency, it also hoped to deliver "efficient and cost-effective public services to citizens of Pakistan.
Description of each module listed are:. NITB released a high-level diagram that describes the process of transforming Federal Government agencies and ministries to e-Office environments. Criticism: NITB's rollout of the e-Office suite across almost all federal agencies is not only overly ambitious but also likely to fail. It seems to put together a lot of lofty organizational efficiency goals with a set of delivery or citizen-facing targets. In fact, most of the services NITB has provided have been largely conceptual and not sufficient concrete.
The process outlined in the adoption process diagram seems devoid of any user-centric design or value proposition formulation. Instead of creating lots of MVPs Minimum Viable Products and taking advantage of an iterative and validated learning the process, the e-Office Suite seems to incorporate all the features and functions that various ministries and divisions may need or use.
It seems to focus more on the needs of the bureaucrats and government agencies rather than the needs of the end-user citizens of Pakistan and what services would they need that a ministry or division can provide. Sri Lanka have taken some initiative actions to provide the benefits of e-government to the citizens. To implement the principles of e-government, the Ministry of Information and Telecommunication Technologies of Thailand developed a plan for creating a modern e-services system during The next stage was the five-year project of the digital government, which began in and will be completed in In , Thailand ranks 73rd in the UN e-government ranking.
Jordan has established its e-government program since The e-Government was also established in Saudi Arabia , and it offers online government services and transactions. The "E-Government" framework was established in accordance with the "National Strategy on Information-Communication Technologies in the Development of the Republic of Azerbaijan " and implemented in the framework of the "E-Azerbaijan" Program.
The project is aimed to increase the convenience and efficiency of the activity of state agencies, simplify interactions between population, businesses, and government agencies, contribute to creating new citizen-official relations framework and ensure transparency and free flow of information. The main components of the e-government infrastructure are integrated network infrastructure for state bodies, E-government portal, E-government gateway, State register of information resources and systems, e-signature, e-document circulation and e-government data center under preparation.
State portal www. Through e-government portal, citizens can use more than e-services of 27 state agencies. Besides, a gateway between government agencies was established to ensure the mutual exchange of information, and most state agencies are connected to this infrastructure. The gateway allows users to efficiently use the existing government information systems and safe contact between them, issuing requests and rendering e-services, liberates citizens from providing same information or documents which are already available in information databases.
On 14 March , it was launched E-government Development Center. The service tries to utilize digital technologies, establish e-government to make state services operate more efficiently, ensure public services availability, and improve the living standards of the citizens of the country.
It is government-to-citizen type of the e-governance. The e-government portal egov. Armenian e-government was established in E-government brings together all tools and databases created by Armenian state agencies and provides a user-friendly online environment for users. It includes more than twenty services and tools. Under this initiative, "Interactive Budget"  and "State Non-Commercial Organisations' Financing"  sections are available for the first time. There are also twenty other tools, including search engines, allowing to find the Government's and the Prime Minister's decisions, the agenda of the next cabinet sitting, information on the state purchases, the electronic tax reporting system, the online application system of the Intellectual Property Agency, the information search system of the Intellectual Property Agency, as well as the Electronic Signature and Electronic Visa e-visa sections.
It is worth mentioning that the Electronic Signature is used in several other services when a user wants to submit an application or receive information. The Electronic Signature is universal system and is used both by the state officials and by citizens, legal entities. This system allows companies to submit an application for obtaining or terminating licenses regarding various activities pharmaceuticals, banking, construction, transport etc.
It also provides other services in respect of already obtained license. The Report Acceptance System for licensed persons enables to submit any report annually, monthly or quarterly on licensed activities. Electronic Payment System effectively processes online payments. This application is designed specifically for charging the state fees, local fees, the administrative penalties or services provided by state and local governmental bodies. The system enables to submit an application to the property cadastre and receives information on landowners, the surface of a plot of land, legal status of any property.
The state electronic payment system is integrated into this tool. Online applications for registration of rights and restrictions and related documents may be submitted by users who have a digital signature. It is designed particularly for publication any draft initiated by the Government or Member of Parliaments. The website enables them to search legal drafts, follow their further progress, and become familiar with the presented suggestions. The registered users can present suggestions, get informed with the "summary paper" of the suggestions to the draft, the adopted suggestions or the reasoning concerning the not adopted ones.
The system enables registration of legal entities, such as limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, foundations, and self-employed entrepreneurs. On average it takes twenty minutes to register a company depending on the entity's type. State fee can be paid through E-Payments system. The system also allows users to track the submitted applications and search existing companies as well as purchase full information about any company, including information about shareholders.
This system allows users to find cases, search for laws of Armenia, as well as to follow the schedule of court hearings. The system is designed for public announcements. The state authorities are obliged to make public announcements under certain circumstances stipulated by law. This tool simplifies the tax declaration process for both taxpayers and tax authorities. Any natural person or legal entity can submit tax declaration verifying it by electronic signature. Online submission of patent and trademark applications using electronic signature.
Visas are issued within two days. The system allows users to verify the identity of the user and protect the submitted application. Any resident of Armenia, either a natural person or legal entity, can obtain an electronic signature and use it while applying E-Government systems. Estonia has established its e-government program with the support of the European Union since with the introduction of e-Banking.
Estonia conducts legally binding i-Voting at national and local elections and offers e-Residency to foreigners. The academy has trained over 4, officials from more than 60 countries and led or participated in more than 60 international ICT projects on the national, local and organizational levels. Estonia is widely recognized as e-Estonia , as a reference to its tech-savvy government and society. On the Federal Law "On providing state and municipal services" , the strategy on development of Information Society in the Russian Federation, approved by the President , the Federal target programme "Electronic Russia" — years , approved by the Government , the State Programme "Information Society" , the Procedure on development and approval of administrative regulations execution of public functions public services , approved by the Government , the concept of administrative reform in the Russian Federation in - respectively, approved by the Government , on other orders, resolutions and acts in the Russian Federation was created electronic government or e-government.
The main target on creating e-government lies in the field of providing equal opportunities for all the Russians in spite of their living place and their incomes and make a more effective system of public administration. So e-government is created for reaching the useful system of public management accommodating the individual interests of every citizen by participation through ICTs in public policy-making.
Nowadays Russian e-government includes such systems as: . The United interagency Interacting system using for providing of state and municipal services, exchange of information and data between participants of interagency interacting, quick approval of state and municipal decisions, etc. The United system for authentication and authorization providing evidence of the rights of all participants of e-government. United portal of state and municipal services and functions which are the "single window" for all information and services assured by government and municipals.
The portal of public services is one of the key elements of the project to create an "electronic government" in the country. The portal provides a single point of access to all references on state and municipal services through the Internet and provides citizens and organizations the opportunity to receive these services electronically. Monthly visits by users of the public services portal range between , and , For example, citizens are now able to get or exchange a driver's license through this portal.
Today Russian e-government elements are demanded in the spheres of e-governance, e-services e-health, e-education, e-library, etc. By the United Nations E-Government Survey E-Government for the People Russia became one of the 7 emerging leaders in e-government development, took 9th place in rating of e-government development in largest population countries, took 8th rank in Top e-participation leaders, after Norway, Sweden and Chile, Advancing 32 positions in the world rankings, the Russian Federation became the leader of e-government in Eastern Europe.
Evolution of ICT in the Russian Federation provided the raising of Russia in e-government development index to the 27 places.
Table of Contents
The main coordinating government body in matters of e-government is State e-Government Agency , which was established on June 4, The beginning of the state policy of the development of the information society was the adoption in of the Laws of Ukraine "On electronic documents and electronic document circulation", "On the national program of informatization", "On the electronic digital signature" and a number of state acts related to informatization.
Later, the Law of Ukraine "On the Basic Principles of the Information Society in Ukraine for ", "On Information Protection in Information and Telecommunication Systems" and some other legislative acts aimed at concretization and specification of these laws were adopted. This law emphasized the use of information and telecommunication technologies to improve public administration, relations between the state and citizens.
The next stage of e-government development began in after the adoption of the Agreement of parliamentary factions of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in and the adoption of the Development Strategy "Ukraine - ", which was approved by Decree of the President of Ukraine dated January 12, No. The biggest achievement of the Ukrainian government in this area is a new public e-procurement system - ProZorro.
The system appeared to be so effective and innovative that it won a range of international rewards: the annual prize of the Open Government Awards , the World Procurement Award WPA at Public Sector Awards etc. Second, several notable online tools were launched by civil society. These have included the notably successful Prozorro electronic procurement platform which in its first 14 months of operation already contributed 1.
The spending. E-petitions instruments were adopted by the Presidential Administration, by over local government authorities and more recently by the Cabinet of Ministers. Smart City, open data, e-voting pilots and the growth of regional IT innovation centers such as the Impact Hub in Odesa, Space Hub in Dnipro and iHUB in Vinnytsia are important catalysts to local civic initiatives that focus on social innovation. Lastly, momentum is gaining ground, albeit slowly, in the introduction of e-services where several Ministries including Justice, Economic Development and Trade, Social Policy, Ecology, Regional Development, Building and Housing, Infrastructure and the State Fiscal Service have launched some of their first electronic services.
These newly launched services are facilitating more rapid and cost-efficient business and construction licensing, monitoring of illegal waste dumps and the automation of a one-stop-shop style customs clearance service". The current Clerk of the Privy Council — the head of the federal public service has made workplace renewal a pillar of overall public service renewal. The key to workplace renewal is the adoption of collaborative networked tools. Other tools include GCconnex, a social networking tool, and GCforums, a discussion board system.
The election of Barack Obama as President of the United States became associated with the effective use of Internet technologies during his campaign and in the implementation of his new administration in President Obama's memorandum centered around the idea of increasing transparency throughout various different federal departments and agencies.
By enabling public websites like recovery. In the U. With data from Data.
Electronic Government: Design, Applications and Management (Electronic book text)
Gov, the public can build apps , websites, and mashups. Although "Gov 2. Using data feeds available on DataSF. Three months later, San Francisco launched the first Twitter service, called SF, allowing residents to tweet, text, and send photos of potholes and other requests directly to the city. The software procurement process for something like this would normally have taken months, but in this case, it took less than three months. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see eGov disambiguation.
Primary topics. Index of politics articles Politics by country Politics by subdivision Political economy Political history Political history of the world Political philosophy. Political systems.
Academic disciplines. Political science political scientists. International relations theory. Public administration. Bureaucracy street-level Adhocracy. Public policy doctrine Domestic and foreign policy Civil society Public interest. Organs of government. Separation of powers Legislature Executive Judiciary Election commission. Related topics. Sovereignty Theories of political behavior Political psychology Biology and political orientation Political organisations Foreign electoral intervention.
Main article: e-governance. Main article: Digital divide. Main article: E-democracy. Main article: Paperless office. Main article: e-participation. Main article: E-Government in Pakistan. With government leadership as an important component, the Strategy has put forward the development of an e-government that can realize one-stop delivery of public electronic services.
In , Hong Kong Government has launched the Interoperability Framework IF as an e-government initiative to facilitate implementation of cross-department joined-up government services. IF comprises two parts: 1 definition of a set of recommended technical specifications as a single point of reference for departments and contractors to implement joined-up projects, 2 a framework for formulating and managing XML message standards for G2G and G2B data exchange. Article :. DOI: Secondly, they must understand the applications and functions well enough to make decisions on the distribution of resources and tasks in their subject areas.
Thirdly, the managerial staff must be competent in the use of control techniques project management, financial controlling, evaluation and monitoring of results. In particular, they decide on budgets and the duration of the relevant projects. To be able to make these decisions, they must be given a thorough understanding of the demands and risks of local e-government. Council members should be approached, motivated and trained as users of the relevant applications council information systems and groupware applications from the start of the local e-government project.
Users It is important to motivate and train citizens and private business participants to enable them to use the services offered by local e-government. It is especially important to provide media competence, for example in leisure facilities at supervised support PCs, in old people's homes, youth centres, meeting places for citizens from abroad, adult education centres and libraries. Training courses for small and medium-sized companies should mainly be provided in cooperation with the chambers of commerce and industry. Internal communication Internal communication means communicating the guiding principles, strategy and activities of local e-government to the staff, managerial staff, council and politicians, and discussing these subjects.
The goal is to motivate all participants to support the virtual town hall and to promote its acceptance. The specific communication methods generally involve various instruments of communication - such as newsletters, staff surveys and staff working parties. External communication External communication needs to create acceptance for local e-government among citizens and business companies and to mobilise users. Like internal communication, this also needs a communication concept: the means of communication, measures and goals must be named. It is helpful to bring in professional marketing competence.
To ensure that the needs of all participants municipality, business companies and citizens are taken into account, all groups of users must be integrated into the communication process at an early stage. Cooperation with other public authorities Local e-government can bring a noticeable improvement in the cooperation between public authorities. Especially solutions which span various levels national government, federal states, local communities offer great potential for increased efficiency.
The range of subjects for such solutions is very broad - from transport and the environment to disaster prevention.
E-Government — A Roadmap for Progress | SpringerLink
A shared technical infrastructure e. Partnership with business companies In local e-government, public-private partnerships can play a major role in helping to overcome knowledge deficits and offering relief to strained municipal budgets. They also provide greater efficiency and effectiveness, particularly because of the advantages they offer in time, quality and costs.
In addition to the classical forms such as private participation in public companies, three new models have arisen, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages: strategic partnerships, cooperative models and operator models. There are now a number of good guidelines e. Bertelsmann Foundation et al a , b ; Schellenberg ; Stapel-Schulz et al ; Ulrich , so all local communities can form a good impression of the opportunities and problems of public-private partnerships.
Cooperation with associations and initiatives Municipalities do not usually have the resources and innovative force to develop far-reaching and exemplary solutions or standards on their own. They therefore need to cooperate with associations and initiatives in specific subject areas, and possibly for a limited time. The legal forms and forms of cooperation are as varied as the content.
Promising options include cooperation with regional initiatives to increase public participation, cooperation with business companies to promote businesses or town and city marketing. Exchange with science and research Finally, cooperation with the science and research community can also help to make local e-government successful. This is not only underlined by the fact that many of the first virtual town halls in Germany, for example in Bremen, came about at the initiative of experts at universities and other higher education institutions.
Cooperation with science and research institutions can also lead to an advantage in knowledge, image gains and cost savings. In terms of the content, this involves technical and organisational concepts, and also questions of participation. Many individual e-government projects in local communities must be consolidated into a large overall framework in the next few years. This means that resources - in the form of budget funds, personnel and knowledge - must be secured in the long term.
Financing Without long-term provision of the necessary funds, the overall project of local e-government with its sub-projects will progress beyond its initial stage. For a long time, the bulk of the funding will come from the local community budget. But efforts will also be needed to obtain additional finance. Funds from private sources which can be invested in areas such as public-private partnerships are relevant for some sub-projects or for specific tasks.
In the medium term, savings can be achieved if local e-government is systematically implemented. Personnel Local e-government cannot be implemented without the expertise and active support of the staff. In the last resort, the staff with their ideas and suggestions are the backbone of all work that is done and all knowledge that is accumulated in the public administration.
- The Design and Implementation of E-government System Based on County.
- Factors for success for local community e-government.
- Advances in Mathematical Chemistry and Applications. Volume 1.
Methods such as staff training, far-reaching staff consultation and appropriate remuneration are among the ways to promote the loyalty of qualified staff. The central instrument is the staffing resources plan, which must be closely coordinated with the overall e-government strategy. Knowledge Knowledge quickly goes out of date, especially in information and communication technology.
At the same time, the participants are increasingly under pressure to act. Against this background, the methodical treatment of knowledge and sources of knowledge is fundamentally important. The requirements for a sustainable preservation of knowledge as a resource particularly affect the area of organisation.
But technical solutions are an important foundation for the modern knowledge management which is necessary. Legal competence Compliance with the legal provisions is a basic requirement for the successful implementation of local e-government. To guarantee this, legal expertise must be integrated into the planning and implementation of the virtual town hall.
This can be achieved with internal legal experts or by consulting external legal experts at an early stage. Changes in the law The statutory regulations do not yet meet the requirements for virtual administration at all levels of the federal state and municipal law. For example, changes may be needed in formal requirements and the provisions for fees. The legal experts are therefore also needed to determine the need for changes in laws, statutes and by-laws.
Permissibility of portal services The planners of the municipal Internet presentation are then faced with the question of what services the town or city is legally entitled to offer in its domain. The central criterion at the local community level consists of the so-called "business clauses" in the municipal regulations of the federal states. Here, it must be examined whether, and under what conditions, on-line services can be offered at all under the municipal regulations of the respective local community.
Safeguarding the municipal domain The Internet portal of a local community is generally found under www. The courts consistently confirm that local communities are legally entitled to these domain names and other top level domains such as www. Operating structure of the portal Another major element of the overall strategy for the implementation of local e-government is the selection of a suitable organisational form for the operation of the Internet portal. Usually it is advisable for the portal to be operated independently or in cooperation with private partners. The legal issues associated with the choice of an organisational type are subject to the general conditions of company law and public procurement law, the municipal regulations and other special provisions of the respective federal state.
Use of private IT expertise The use of private IT expertise must always be considered in the implementation of the virtual town hall, especially in view of the general budgetary principles of economic efficiency and savings. This can be achieved by individual contracts for IT services, extensive outsourcing or by establishing development partnerships for specific issues. The general principles of public procurement law must always be observed in the selection of private partners.
Under these statutes, the obligations of media and teleservices include the provision of legal and contact details concerning the provider of the website and compliance with data protection laws.
Electronic Government: Design, Applications and Management: Design ...
The laws also contain provisions concerning liability, exemption from liability for third party content and special data protection requirements. Legal provision of information services On-line information services are fundamentally subject to the same requirements that apply in the "off-line-world": they must comply with the regulations governing public relations work by the state, the information presented must be objective, rational and transparent, and the content must be relevant to the town, city or local community.
For on-line services, questions of liability for illegal content in hyperlinks and possible copyright, trademark or competition infringements arising from the integration of third party content must also be taken into account. But administrative procedural law still governs questions of access in terms of the general provisions.
Another aspect of communication involves the provision of discussion and chat forums on local community portals. Here, a legal basis is particularly necessary in order to deal with "troublemakers" who use this public service. This can be achieved with clearly formulated conditions for use. Legal provision of transaction services On-line transactions without discontinuity of media are not only technically complex as electronic administrative acts , the legal issues which must be taken into account are equally complex.
Whenever the law requires that documents must be issued in writing, electronic communication is generally only permissible if a verified electronic signature is used. Questions of access, statements of reasons, electronic instructions on legal remedies and electronic confirmation of an electronic administrative act must also be considered.
The benefits of the concept of success factors The concept of success factors aims to fulfil the following purposes:. The success factors are not all equal in importance. The success factors and their sub-factors have been assigned different priorities Grabow : p. These priorities offer a typical guideline, but each local community should review these priorities in the light of its own goals and guiding principles, and correct them if necessary.
The matrix of success factors can be used as a guide and a checklist. A deliberate decision was made not to make this matrix into a tool for "simple self-diagnosis" as a form of benchmarking or ranking of simple indicators. In our view, this would be inappropriate because of the complexity of the area and the different reference points and starting positions in every local community.
We believe that reducing highly complex modernisation models and factual situations to simple indicators is not scientifically or academically responsible. In fact, simplified indicators or rankings could be confusing and counter-productive: The semblance of exactitude would all too easily - and wrongly - give subjective self-assessments a scientific or objective character.
The matrix enables the progress that has been achieved to be assessed qualitatively: Which factors are largely under control, which factors are partly under control, which ones are hardly or not at all under control, which areas are "explosive"? The respective "result" helps in decision-making on the introduction or further development of local e-government. In this sense, the success factors as a whole also constitute a guideline for e-government. In our experience, the model is also suitable for a well-founded scientific outside assessment.
The evaluation of the MEDIA Komm project and the corresponding analysis in 26 other German municipalities and in comparable foreign municipalities were carried out according to this matrix. The findings of these studies form a basis for the successful further development of local e-government in Germany. In most cases, e-government in these municipalities has the following characteristics:. A specific contribution of the MEDIA Komm regions - in keeping with the conditions of the subsidies - was that they focused specifically on testing secure and legally binding transactions.
The subsidised municipalities tackled tasks before the competition which would have been difficult to manage without subsidies. In these regions the success factors "The right technology" and "Applications" are especially well developed. Even in an international comparison, the MEDIA Komm municipalities are among the pioneers of secure and legally binding e-government. According to the present results, Germany is a country which can give in some areas, but must receive in others. But Germany can provide stimulus in areas such as solutions, products, experience and expertise, especially to ensure secure, legally binding and authenticated transactions using the verified electronic signature.
The German competence in this area also includes the development of technical platforms for local community e-government, standardisation of specialist applications and interoperability. The need for action and making up of ground National and international studies provide clear indications of both the strengths cf. The areas in which the average of the local communities in Germany not the pioneers still shows the greatest deficits and lack of development are widely varied:.
In addition, local decision-makers must react to the need to achieve synergies by joint solutions and standardisation. If this is successfully achieved, e-government will really become a symbol of hope for a new type of municipality which is capable of action, citizen-oriented and business-oriented. ICT, the Internet and new media can make a decisive contribution to improving the quality of life and the location - but only if all parties remain aware of the benefits of e-government.
There are two "strands" of discussion, the public choice approach which is based on market-oriented service structures or similar and the public management approach in which the main focus is largely on the organisational model of a private business organisation; cf. The projects were implemented from the beginning of to the end of and bring together the work of about partners. Altogether, more than 65 million Euros were invested, of which almost 30 million came from subsidies from the Ministry cf.
The conceptual components of the model have already been tested for their effectiveness in practice in the framework of the accompanying research for MEDIA Komm. Support was also provided by the MEDIA Komm advisory council and numerous people involved in practical work in the local communities.