The Art of Bonsai: Creation, Care and Enjoyment
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This comprehensive and logically organized guide describes current and new woody landscape plant selection and maintenance practices and evaluates them based on the most recent research and experience. This expanded and updated bestseller, offers a clear explanation of how plants grow. An authoritative text based on science, not speculation. It provides sound advice on not only what to do, but why.
Topics include transplanting, drainage, nutrition, and other factors important in dealing with both the planting and establishment of landscape plants. An emphasis is placed on the significant role roots play in the eventual long term health of a plant. A well organized and complete text on garden insects. Easily identify insects with well over 1, full-color photographs showing them in various life cycle stages.
The simple yet complete explanations, diagrams and photographs make this the best reference for diagnosing most insect problems. This is an indispensable guide for homeowner and professional who want to keep their trees healthy and pest free. An extensive section on diagnosis and control of tree pests and diseases is included. These containers are usually ceramic pots, which come in a variety of shapes and colors and may be glazed or unglazed.
Unlike many common plant containers, bonsai pots have drainage holes in the bottom surface to complement fast-draining bonsai soil, allowing excess water to escape the pot. Growers cover the holes with a screening to prevent soil from falling out and to hinder pests from entering the pots from below. Pots usually have vertical sides, so that the tree's root mass can easily be removed for inspection, pruning, and replanting, although this is a practical consideration and other container shapes are acceptable. There are alternatives to the conventional ceramic pot.
Multi-tree bonsai may be created atop a fairly flat slab of rock, with the soil mounded above the rock surface and the trees planted within the raised soil. In recent times, bonsai creators have also begun to fabricate rock-like slabs from raw materials including concrete  and glass-reinforced plastic. Other unconventional containers can also be used, but in formal bonsai display and competitions in Japan, the ceramic bonsai pot is the most common container.
For bonsai being shown formally in their completed state, pot shape, color, and size are chosen to complement the tree as a picture frame is chosen to complement a painting. In general, containers with straight sides and sharp corners are used for formally shaped plants, while oval or round containers are used for plants with informal designs. Many aesthetic guidelines affect the selection of pot finish and color. For example, evergreen bonsai are often placed in unglazed pots, while deciduous trees usually appear in glazed pots.
Pots are also distinguished by their size. The overall design of the bonsai tree, the thickness of its trunk, and its height are considered when determining the size of a suitable pot. Some pots are highly collectible, like ancient Chinese or Japanese pots made in regions with experienced pot makers such as Tokoname, Japan , or Yixing , China. Today many potters worldwide produce pots for bonsai. The Japanese tradition describes bonsai tree designs using a set of commonly understood, named styles. Less common forms include windswept, weeping, split-trunk, and driftwood styles.
When a bonsai specimen falls into multiple style categories, the common practice is to describe it by the dominant or most striking characteristic. A frequently used set of styles describes the orientation of the bonsai tree's main trunk.
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Different terms are used for a tree with its apex directly over the center of the trunk's entry into the soil, slightly to the side of that center, deeply inclined to one side, and inclined below the point at which the trunk of the bonsai enters the soil. A number of styles describe the trunk shape and bark finish. For example, the deadwood bonsai styles identify trees with prominent dead branches or trunk scarring. Although most bonsai trees are planted directly into the soil, there are styles describing trees planted on rock. While the majority of bonsai specimens feature a single tree, there are well-established style categories for specimens with multiple trunks.
Japanese bonsai exhibitions and catalogs frequently refer to the size of individual bonsai specimens by assigning them to size classes see table below. Not all sources agree on the exact sizes or names for these size ranges, but the concept of the ranges is well-established and useful to both the cultivation and the aesthetic understanding of the trees. A photograph of a bonsai may not give the viewer an accurate impression of the tree's real size, so printed documents may complement a photograph by naming the bonsai's size class.
The size class implies the height and weight of the tree in its container.
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In the very largest size ranges, a recognized Japanese practice is to name the trees "two-handed", "four-handed", and so on, based on the number of men required to move the tree and pot. These trees will have dozens of branches and can closely simulate a full-size tree. The very largest size, called "imperial", is named after the enormous potted trees of Japan's Imperial Palace.
At the other end of the size spectrum, there are a number of specific techniques and styles associated solely with the smallest common sizes, mame and shito. These techniques take advantage of the bonsai's minute dimensions and compensate for the limited number of branches and leaves that can appear on a tree this small. The Japanese tradition of bonsai does not include indoor bonsai, and bonsai appearing at Japanese exhibitions or in catalogs have been grown outdoors for their entire lives. In less-traditional settings, including climates more severe than Japan's, indoor bonsai may appear in the form of potted trees cultivated for the indoor environment.
Traditionally, bonsai are temperate climate trees grown outdoors in containers. But a number of tropical and sub-tropical tree species will survive and grow indoors. Some of these tropical and sub-tropical species are suited to bonsai aesthetics and can be shaped much as traditional outdoor bonsai are.
Creation, Care and Enjoyment
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bonsai disambiguation. Not to be confused with Banzai disambiguation. Main article: History of bonsai. Main article: Bonsai cultivation and care.
Art of Bonsai - Creation, Care and Enjoyment
Main article: Bonsai aesthetics. Main article: Bonsai styles. Main article: Indoor bonsai. Trees portal. Miniature Bonsai. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. The Independent. Retrieved The New York Times. Bonsai Masterclass.
The Art of Bonsai: Creation, Care and Enjoyment by Yuji Yoshimura
Sterling Publishing Co. The Bonsai Identifier. Quintet Publishing Ltd. The Oxford companion to the garden 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The earliest illustration of bonsai was discovered in the Chinese tomb of Prince Zhang Huai, who died in Chinese penjing: Miniature trees and landscapes. Portland: Timber Press.
Vancouver: Raincoast Book Dist Ltd. International Bonsai 4 : Magical Miniature Landscapes.
Charles E. Classic Bonsai of Japan. Art of Bonsai. Bonsai Techniques II. Bonsai Institute of California. Bonsai Empire. Dorling Kindersley. The elite class of monks, scholars, and artists took a slightly different path during the Edo period, [ The same images were then recreated in tree form by literati, who were also bonsai enthusiasts. Bonsai in California. International Bonsai 4 : 10— NBF Bulletin. First Shimpaku: Ishizuchi Shimpaku".
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