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An exciting tank battle ensues. Army Rangers find an American girl, twelve-year-old Julie Summers, about to be stoned. Little Julie becomes America's sweetheart and has an important role in the story. Teresa Lopez continues her adventures, this time in France where a copy of America's top secret war plan was leaked to a French newspaper. Teresa looks for the source at the U. General Simpson and Martha Wellington take a more direct approach and send a SEAL team to interview suspects--but be assured no waterboarding is employed.
Alexander turns to rebuilding the America Government. He wants to take the nation back to the principals of its Founding Fathers. His first task is to define what went wrong, and then propose solutions: new political parties and term limits are but a few of his suggestions--none of which find traction with liberals.
Several liberal governors make an end run and try to appoint Congressional representatives before Alexander is ready for elections. Colonel Gordi gets another call to arms, making his governor's day. President Alexander has to deal with an out-of-control drug gang problem, and a southern neighbor about to become a drug cartel state.
Homeland Security's interdiction of drug shipments angers the cartel bosses, especially The Hulk and El Verdugo, who plans to teach the president a lesson. Alexander dispatches "hostage negotiators" to explain why kidnapping Americans is a bad idea. One cartel boss gets the message.
Two women a mugger would never want to meet. There are several more exciting subplots woven into riveting story of America rediscovering its roots and preparing to be reborn. Although America Reborn ends the trilogy, the story is far from finished. The first book of the trilogy, The Rings of Allah, tells the story of a terrorist attack using simple nuclear devices.
It is told from the terrorists' perspective and provides the reader with understandable descriptions of simple nuclear weapons and how they can be hidden in or cities. What would happen after a catastrophic attack that destroyed five cities? Could America survive? The answers are provided in the second book, Behold, an Ashen Horse.
The reader is introduced to advanced weapons, some of which are in the news today July The third book of the trilogy ends with America's new president, George Alexander, beginning the process of forming a new government. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty , which eventually determined the economic course of Egypt during the High Middle Ages. The Fatimid dynasty continued with al-Musta'li as both Imam and Caliph, and that joint position held until the 20th Imam, al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah At the death of Imam Amir, one branch of the Mustaali faith claimed that he had transferred the imamate to his son at-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim , who was then two years old.
Shirkuh died two months after taking power, and the rule went to his nephew, Saladin. Beginning in the 8th century, the Iberian Christian kingdoms had begun the Reconquista aimed at retaking Al-Andalus from the Moors. In the early period of the Crusades, the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem emerged and for a time controlled Jerusalem. The Kingdom of Jerusalem and other smaller Crusader kingdoms over the next 90 years formed part of the complicated politics of the Levant , but did not threaten the Islamic Caliphate nor other powers in the region. After Shirkuh ended Fatimid rule in , uniting it with Syria, the Crusader kingdoms were faced with a threat, and his nephew Saladin reconquered most of the area in , leaving the Crusaders holding a few ports.
In the Third Crusade armies from Europe failed to recapture Jerusalem, though Crusader states lingered for several decades, and other crusades followed. The Christian Reconquista continued in Al-Andalus, and was eventually completed with the fall of Granada in During the low period of the Crusades, the Fourth Crusade was diverted from the Levant and instead took Constantinople , leaving the Eastern Roman Empire now the Byzantine Empire further weakened in their long struggle against the Turkish peoples to the east.
However, the crusaders did manage to damage Islamic caliphates; according to William of Malmesbury , preventing them from further expansion into Christendom  and being targets of the Mamluks and the Mongols. The Ayyubid dynasty was founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt. In , Saladin proclaimed himself Sultan and conquered the Near East region. The Ayyubids ruled much of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries, controlling Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
After Saladin, his sons contested control over the sultanate, but Saladin's brother al-Adil eventually established himself in In the s, Syria's Ayyubid rulers attempted to win independence from Egypt and remained divided until Egyptian Sultan as-Salih Ayyub restored Ayyubid unity by taking over most of Syria, excluding Aleppo , by In , the dynasty in the Egyptian region was overthrown by slave regiments.
A number of attempts to recover it failed, led by an-Nasir Yusuf of Aleppo. In , the Mongols sacked Aleppo and wrested control of what remained of the Ayyubid territories soon after. After the Crusades the Mongols invaded in the 13th century, marking the end of the Islamic Golden Age. Some historians assert that the eastern Islamic world never fully recovered.
The Mongol invasion of Central Asia began in at a huge cost in civilian life and economic devastation. Mongke's brother, Hulegu , was made leader of the Mongol Army assigned to the task of subduing Baghdad. The fall of Bagdhad in destroyed what had been the largest city in Islam. The last Abbasid caliph, al-Musta'sim , was captured and killed; and Baghdad was ransacked and destroyed. The cities of Damascus and Aleppo fell in Plans for the conquest of Egypt were delayed due to the death of Mongke at around the same time.
The Abbasid army lost to the superior Mongol army, but the invaders were finally stopped by Egyptian Mamluks north of Jerusalem in at the pivotal Battle of Ain Jalut. Most Ilkhanid rulers were replaced by the new Mongol power founded by Timur himself a Muslim , who conquered Persia in the s, and moved against the Delhi Sultanate in India and the Ottoman Turks in Anatolia. Timur's ceaseless conquests were accompanied by displays of brutality matched only by Chinggis Khan , whose example Timur consciously imitated. The plague began in China, and reached Alexandria in Egypt in , spreading over the following years to most Islamic areas.
The combination of the plague and the wars left the Middle Eastern Islamic world in a seriously weakened position. The Timurid dynasty would found many branches of Islam, including the Mughals of India. In , the Ayyubid Egyptian dynasty was overthrown by slave regiments, and the Mamluk Sultanate was born.
Military prestige was at the center of Mamluk society, and it played a key role in the confrontations with the Mongol forces. In the s, the Mongols sacked and controlled the Islamic Near East territories. The Mongols were again defeated by the Mamluks at the Battle of Hims a few months later, and then driven out of Syria altogether.
Thus they united Syria and Egypt for the longest interval between the Abbasid and Ottoman empires — As part of their chosen role as defenders of Islamic orthodoxy, the Mamluks sponsored many religious buildings, including mosques, madrasas and khanqahs. Though some construction took place in the provinces, the vast bulk of these projects expanded the capital.
Many Mamluk buildings in Cairo have survived to this day, particularly in Old Cairo. The Arabs, under the command of the Berber General Tarik ibn Ziyad , first began their conquest of southern Spain or al-Andalus in A raiding party led by Tarik was sent to intervene in a civil war in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania. Crossing the Strait of Gibraltar named after the General , it won a decisive victory in the summer of when the Visigothic king Roderic was defeated and killed on July 19 at the Battle of Guadalete. Tariq's commander, Musa bin Nusair crossed with substantial reinforcements, and by the Muslims dominated most of the peninsula.
The two large armies may have been in the south for a year before the decisive battle was fought. After the Abbasids came to power, some Umayyads fled to Muslim Spain to establish themselves there. He secured peace with the Christian kingdoms of northern Iberia,  and made use of the stability to develop agriculture through the construction of irrigation works. The rule of the Caliphate is known as the heyday of Muslim presence in the peninsula.
The Umayyad Caliphate collapsed in due to political divisions and civil unrest during the rule of Hicham II who was ousted because of his indolence. Some of the taifas , such as that of Seville, were forced to enter into alliances with Christian princes and pay tributes in money to Castille.
Abd al-Rahman I and Bedr a former Greek slave escaped with their lives after the popular revolt known as the Abbasid Revolution. Rahman I continued south through Palestine, the Sinai, and then into Egypt. Rahman I was one of several surviving Umayyad family members to make a perilous trek to Ifriqiya at this time. Rahman I and Bedr reached modern day Morocco near Ceuta. Next step would be to cross to sea to al-Andalus, where Rahman I could not have been sure whether he would be welcome.
Following the Berber Revolt s , the province was in a state of confusion, with the Ummah torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs and racial tensions between the Arabs and Berbers. After discussion with Yemenite commanders, Rahman I was told to go to al-Andalus. Shortly thereafter, he set off with Bedr and a small group of followers for Europe. News of the prince's arrival spread throughout the peninsula. In order to help speed his ascension to power, he took advantage of the feuds and dissensions. However, before anything could be done, trouble broke out in northern al-Andalus. Abd al-Rahman and his followers were able to control Zaragoza.
Rahman I was victorious, chasing his enemies from the field with parts of their army. After Rahman I consolidated power, he proclaimed himself the al-Andalus emir. Rahman I did not claim the Muslim caliph, though. Al-Andalus was a safe haven for the house of Umayya that managed to evade the Abbasids. In Baghdad, the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur had planned to depose the emir.
Rahman I and his army confronted the Abbasids, killing most of the Abbasid army. The main Abbasid leaders were decapitated, their heads preserved in salt, with identifying tags pinned to their ears. The heads were bundled in a gruesome package and sent to the Abbasid caliph who was on pilgrimage at Mecca. Rahman I quelled repeated rebellions in al-Andalus.
He began the building of the great mosque [cordova], and formed ship-yards along the coast; he is moreover said to have been the first to transplant the palm and the pomegranate into the congenial climate of Spain: and he encouraged science and literature in his states. He died on 29 September , after a reign of thirty-four years and one month. Rahman I's successor was his son Hisham I.
He called for a jihad that resulted in a campaign against the Kingdom of Asturias and the County of Toulouse ; in this second campaign he was defeated at Orange by William of Gellone , first cousin to Charlemagne. One, Abdallah, went to the court of Charlemagne in Aix-la-Chapelle to negotiate for aid. Abd ar-Rahman II succeeded his father and engaged in nearly continuous warfare against Alfonso II of Asturias , whose southward advance he halted. Thereafter he constructed a fleet and naval arsenal at Seville to repel future raids. He responded to William of Septimania 's requests of assistance in his struggle against Charles the Bald 's nominations.
Muhammad I was succeeded by his son Mundhir I. During the reign of his father, Mundhir I commanded military operations against the neighbouring Christian kingdoms and the Muladi rebellions. At his father's death, he inherited the throne. During his two-year reign, Mundhir I fought against Umar ibn Hafsun. He died in at Bobastro, succeeded by his brother Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi. Umawi showed no reluctance to dispose of those he viewed as a threat. His government was marked by continuous wars between Arabs, Berbers and Muladi.
The son he had designated as successor was killed by one of Umawi's brothers. The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Muslim military expansion following the death of Muhammad in By the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia , had invaded Armenia , and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad caliphate. By the end of all of Egypt was in Arab hands. A subsequent attempt to conquer the Nubian kingdom of Makuria was however repelled. Kairouan in Tunisia was the first city founded by Muslims in the Maghreb.
Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi erected the city in and, in the same time, the Great Mosque of Kairouan  considered as the oldest and most prestigious sanctuary in the western Islamic world. This part of Islamic territory has had independent governments during most of Islamic history. The Idrisid were the first Arab rulers in the western Maghreb Morocco , ruling from to The dynasty is named after its first sultan Idris I. The Almoravid dynasty was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara flourished over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian Peninsula during the 11th century.
Under this dynasty the Moorish empire was extended over present-day Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gibraltar, Tlemcen in Algeria and a part of what is now Senegal and Mali in the south, and Spain and Portugal in the north. The Almohad Dynasty or "the Unitarians", were a Berber Muslim religious power which founded the fifth Moorish dynasty in the 12th century, and conquered all Northern Africa as far as Egypt, together with Al-Andalus.
The history of Islam in the Horn of Africa is almost as old as the faith itself. Through extensive trade and social interactions with their converted Muslim trading partners on the other side of the Red Sea , in the Arabian peninsula , merchants and sailors in the Horn region gradually came under the influence of the new religion.
Early Islamic disciples fled to the port city of Zeila in modern-day northern Somalia to seek protection from the Quraysh at the court of the Aksumite Emperor in present-day Somalia. Some of the Muslims that were granted protection are said to have then settled in several parts of the Horn region to promote the religion. The victory of the Muslims over the Quraysh in the 7th century had a significant impact on local merchants and sailors, as their trading partners in Arabia had by then all adopted Islam, and the major trading routes in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea came under the sway of the Muslim Caliphs.
Instability in the Arabian peninsula saw further migrations of early Muslim families to the Somali seaboard. These clans came to serve as catalysts, forwarding the faith to large parts of the Horn region. Local Islamic governments centered in Tanzania then Zanzibar. The people of Zayd were Muslims that immigrated to the Great Lakes region.
In the pre-colonial period, the structure of Islamic authority here was held up through the Ulema wanawyuonis , in Swahili language. These leaders had some degree of authority over most of the Muslims in South East Africa before territorial boundaries were established. The chief Qadi there was recognized for having the final religious authority. On the Indian subcontinent , Islam first appeared in the southwestern tip of the peninsula, in today's Kerala state. Arabs traded with Malabar even before the birth of Muhammad.
According to that legend, the first mosque of India was built by Second Chera King Cheraman Perumal, who accepted Islam and received the name Tajudheen. Historical records suggest that the Cheraman Perumal Mosque was built in around Islamic rule first came to the Indian subcontinent in the 8th century, when Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh , though this was a short-lived consolidation of Indian territory.
Islamic conquests expanded under Mahmud of Ghazni in the 12th century CE, resulting in the establishment of the Ghaznavid Empire in the Indus River basin and the subsequent prominence of Lahore as an eastern bastion of Ghaznavid culture and rule. Qutb-ud-din Aybak conquered Delhi in and began the reign of the Delhi Sultanate ,  a successive series of dynasties that synthesized Indian civilization with the wider commercial and cultural networks of Africa and Eurasia, greatly increased demographic and economic growth in India and deterred Mongol incursion into the prosperous Indo-Gangetic plain.
Many prominent sultanates and emirates administered various regions of the Indian subcontinent from the 13th to the 16th centuries, such as the Qutb Shahi , Gujarat , Kashmir , Bengal , Bijapur and Bahmani Sultanates, but none rivaled the power and extensive reach of the Mughal Empire at its zenith. Persian culture, art, language, cuisine and literature grew in prominence in India due to Islamic administration and the immigration of soldiers, bureaucrats, merchants, Sufis, artists, poets, teachers and architects from Iran and Central Asia, resulting in the early development of Indo-Persian culture.
Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas headed for China for the third time in —51 after Caliph Uthman asked him to lead an embassy to China, which the Chinese emperor received. Islam first reached Maritime Southeast Asia through traders from Mecca in the 7th century,  particularly via the western part of what is now Indonesia.
Arab traders from Yemen already had a presence in Asia through trading and travelling by sea, serving as intermediary traders to and from Europe and Africa. They traded not only Arabian goods but also goods from Africa, India, and so on which included ivory, fragrances, spices, and gold. According to T. The same argument has been told by Dr. Burger and Dr. After Western Imperialist rule, this name was changed to reflect the name used today; the Indian Ocean. Soon, many Sufi missionaries translated classical Sufi literature from Arabic and Persian into Malay ; a tangible product of this is the Jawi script.
Pirates and Cartels by Lee Boyland
Coupled with the composing of original Islamic literature in Malay, this led the way to the transformation of Malay into an Islamic language. Through trade and commerce, Islam then spread to Borneo and Java. By the late 15th century, Islam had been introduced to the Philippines via the southern island of Mindanao. As Islam spread, societal changes developed from the individual conversions, and five centuries later it emerged as a dominant cultural and political power in the region. Three main Muslim political powers emerged.
The Aceh Sultanate was the most important, controlling much of the area between Southeast Asia and India from its centre in northern Sumatra. The Sultanate also attracted Sufi poets. The Sultanate of Demak on Java was the third power, where the emerging Muslim forces defeated the local Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century. Portuguese forces captured Malacca in under naval general Afonso de Albuquerque.
The Sultanate's territory, although vastly diminished, remains intact to this day as the modern state of Brunei Darussalam. These imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder and more efficient administration. The Seljuq Turks declined in the second half of the 13th century, after the Mongol invasion. Osman I afterwards led it in a series of battles with the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans were established in the Balkans and Anatolia by the time Bayezid I ascended to power in the same year, now at the helm of a growing empire.
This episode was characterized by the division of the Ottoman territory amongst Bayezid I's sons, who submitted to Timurid authority. When a number of Ottoman territories regained independent status, ruin for the Empire loomed. However, the empire recovered, as the youngest son of Bayezid I, Mehmed I , waged offensive campaigns against his ruling brothers, thereby reuniting Asia Minor and declaring himself sultan in Around this time the Ottoman naval fleet developed, such that they were able to challenge Venice , a naval power.
They also attempted to reconquer the Balkans. A factor in this siege was the use of muskets and large cannons introduced by the Ottomans. The Byzantine fortress succumbed in , after 54 days of siege. Without its capital the Byzantine Empire disintegrated. In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia under the leadership of Shah Ismail I , defeating the ruling Turcoman federation Aq Qoyunlu also called the "White Sheep Turkomans" in The Ottoman sultan Selim I sought to repel Safavid expansion, challenging and defeating them at the Battle of Chaldiran in Selim I also deposed the ruling Mamluks in Egypt, absorbing their territories in Suleiman I also known as Suleiman the Magnificent , Selim I's successor, took advantage of the diversion of Safavid focus to the Uzbeks on the eastern frontier and recaptured Baghdad, which had fallen under Safavid control.
Despite this, Safavid power remained substantial, rivalling the Ottomans. While Suleiman I's rule — is often identified as the apex of Ottoman power, the empire continued to remain powerful and influential until a relative fall in its military strength in the second half of the eighteenth century. The Safavid dynasty rose to power in Tabriz in and later conquered the rest of Iran. They were of mixed ancestry, originally Kurdish ,  but during their rule intermarried with Turkomans ,  Georgians ,  Circassians ,   and Pontic Greeks.
This resulted in the Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam. Zaydis , the largest group amongst the Shia before the Safavid Dynasty were also forced to convert to the Twelver Shia. The Zaydis at that time used the Hanafi Fiqh, as did most Sunnis and there were good relations between them. Abu Hanifah and Zayd ibn Ali were also very good friends. The Safavids dynasty from Azarbaijan ruled from to , and which established Twelver Shi'a Islam as the region's official religion and united its provinces under a single sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity.
Their origins go back to Firuz Shah Zarrinkolah , a local dignitary from the north. During their rule, the Safavids recognized Twelver Shi'a Islam as the State religion, thus giving the region a separate identity from its Sunni neighbours.
Fathers of the Post-Nicene Era
In , Tahmasp I acceded to the throne, initiating a revival of the arts. Carpetmaking became a major industry. The tradition of Persian miniature painting in manuscripts reached its peak, until Tahmasp turned to strict religious observance in middle age, prohibiting the consumption of alcohol and hashish and removing casinos , taverns and brothels.
Tahmasp's nephew Ibrahim Mirza continued to patronize a last flowering of the arts until he was murdered, after which many artists were recruited by the Mughal dynasty. Both shrines received jewelry, fine manuscripts and Chinese porcelains. Abbas moved the capital to Isfahan , revived old ports, and established thriving trade with Europeans. Amongst Abbas's most visible cultural achievements was the construction of Naqsh-e Jahan Square "Design of the World". The Safavid Dynasty was toppled in by the Hotaki dynasty , which ended their forceful conversion of Sunni areas to Shiaism. The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent, in ca.
Red Fort was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly years, until Mughal Empire was a power that comprised almost all of South Asia , founded in It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty , with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia , claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan through his son Chagatai Khan and Timur ,    and with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances;   the first two Mughal emperors had both parents of Central Asian ancestry, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry.
The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi , the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , in the First Battle of Panipat During the reign of Humayun , the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri , who re-established the Grand Trunk Road across the northern Indian subcontinent, initiated the rupee currency system and developed much of the foundations of the effective administration of Mughal rule.
The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began in , with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
St. Augustine of Hippo
After the death of Aurangzeb , which marks the end of Medieval India and beginning of the European colonialism in India, internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal , the Nawab of Awadh , the Nizam of Hyderabad , the major economic and military power known as Kingdom of Mysore ruled by Tipu Sultan and other small states. In , the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah , the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, and Delhi was sacked and looted , drastically accelerating their decline.
By the midth century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. The Rocket artillery and the world's first iron-cased rockets, the Mysorean rockets , were used during the war and the Jihad based Fathul Mujahidin was compiled. During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II , had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad.
Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned, and exiled to Rangoon. Ibrahim Muteferrika , Rational basis for the Politics of Nations . The modern age brought technological and organizational changes to Europe while the Islamic region continued the patterns of earlier centuries. The European powers, and especially Britain and France , globalized economically and colonized much of the region.
By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had declined. He transformed Turkish culture to reflect European laws, adopted Arabic numerals , the Latin script , separated the religious establishment from the state, and emancipated woman—even giving them the right to vote in parallel with women's suffrage in the west. Following World War I, the vast majority of former Ottoman territory outside of Asia Minor was handed over to the victorious European powers as protectorates.
During the war the Allies had promised the subject peoples independence in exchange for their assistance fighting the Turkish powers. To their dismay, they found that this system of "protectorates" was a smoke-screen for their continued subjugation by the British and the French. The struggles for independence from their Turkish overlords and the cooperation of partisan forces with the British were romanticized in the stories of British secret intelligence agent T. Lawrence —later known as "Lawrence of Arabia.
Many Muslim countries sought to adopt European political organization and nationalism began to emerge in the Muslim world. Countries like Egypt, Syria and Turkey organized their governments and sought to develop national pride among their citizens. Other places, like Iraq, were not as successful due to a lack of unity and an inability to resolve age-old prejudices between Muslim sects and against non-Muslims. Some Muslim countries, such as Turkey and Egypt, sought to separate Islam from the secular government.
In other cases, such as Saudi Arabia, the government brought out religious expression in the re-emergence of the puritanical form of Sunni Islam known to its detractors as Wahabism , which found its way into the Saudi royal family. The Arab—Israeli conflict spans about a century of political tensions and open hostilities.
It involves the establishment of the modern State of Israel as a Jewish nation state , the consequent displacement of the Palestinian people and Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries , as well as the adverse relationship between the Arab states and the State of Israel see related Israeli—Palestinian conflict. Despite at first involving only the Arab states bordering Israel, animosity has also developed between Israel and other predominantly Muslim states.
The Arab countries closed the Suez canal and it was followed in May by the closure of the "tapline" from Saudi Arabia through Syria to Lebanon. These developments had the effect of increasing the importance of petroleum in Libya , which is a short and canal-free shipping distance from Europe. In , Occidental Petroleum broke with other oil companies and accepted the Arab demands for price increases.
OPEC had been emboldened by the success of Sadat's campaigns and the war strengthened their unity. In response to the emergency resupply effort by the West that enabled Israel to put up a resistance against the Egyptian and Syrian forces, the Arab world imposed the oil embargo against the United States and Western Europe.
Faisal agreed that Saudi Arabia would use some of its oil wealth to finance the "front-line states", those that bordered Israel, in their struggle. The centrality of petroleum, the Arab—Israeli conflict and political and economic instability and uncertainty remain constant features of the politics of the region. Many countries, individuals and non-governmental organizations elsewhere in the world feel involved in this conflict for reasons such as cultural and religious ties with Islam, Arab culture , Christianity , Judaism , Jewish culture , or for ideological, human rights , or strategic reasons.
Although some consider the Arab—Israeli conflict a part of or a precursor to a wider clash of civilizations between the Western World and the Muslim world ,   others oppose this view. In the Iranian Revolution transformed Iran from a constitutional monarchy to a populist theocratic Islamic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini , a Shi'i Muslim cleric and marja. Following the Revolution, and a new constitution was approved and a referendum established the government, electing Ruhollah Khomeini as Supreme Leader. During the following two years, liberals, leftists, and Islamic groups fought each other, and the Islamics captured power.
The development of the two opposite fringes, the Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam the Twelver Shia version and its reinforcement by the Iranian Revolution and the Salafi in Saudi Arabia, coupled with the Iran—Saudi Arabia relations resulted in these governments using sectarian conflict to enhance their political interests. Certain Iranian exiles also helped convince Saddam that if he invaded, the fledgling Islamic republic would quickly collapse.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the history of Islam as a culture and polity. For a history of the Islamic faith, see Islamic schools and branches. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Texts and sciences. Culture and society. Related topics. Main article: Timeline of Muslim history. Main article: Historiography of early Islam. See also: Early social changes under Islam.
Main article: Rashidun Caliphate. Main article: Umayyad Caliphate.
- The Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Global Response to a Natural Disaster.
- Popular Military Writers Society Of America Books.
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Main article: Islamic Golden Age. Main article: Abbasid Caliphate. Four constructions of Islamite law. Al-Aqsa Mosque. Main article: Fatimid Caliphate. Main article: Crusades. Main article: Ayyubid dynasty. Main article: Mongol invasions and conquests. Main article: Mamluk Sultanate Cairo.
Main article: Bahri dynasty. Main article: Burji dynasty. See also: Reconquista and Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula. Main article: Almoravid dynasty. Main article: Almohad dynasty. Main article: Greater Maghreb. Main articles: Islam in Ethiopia and Islam in Somalia. Further information: History of Islam in China. See also: The spread of Islam in Indonesia to Main article: Early modern history. Main article: Ottoman Empire. Main article: Safavid Empire. Main article: Mughal Empire. Main article: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Arab—Israeli conflict.
Modern Islamic world. Islam and the Integration of Society. Psychology Press. Islam: The Straight Path 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. Welch, Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. Arabia and Ethiopia. Zeitlin 19 March The Historical Muhammad. A History of the Arab Peoples. Harvard University Press. Montgomery Watt Muhammad At Medina. This is no fairytale. The Earthsea Cycle. Le Guin's precise, descriptive prose is perfection.
No syllable is unnecessary. Though the entire four-book series may be shorter than your average volume of heroism and questing, its complexity and richness are on par with or exceed every novel on this list. A cycle in every sense these tales woven with themes of life, death, loss, redemption, and balance can be read in any order without becoming repetitive or confusing. Set in the Archipelago that both divides and unites the people of Earthsea, it is full of seafaring adventures of magic and mystery, and the story traverses cultures that vary believably, and add interest to the terrain.
I will say, if you are looking for the typical adventurous, swashbuckling yarn Tehanu won't do it for you. It is a journey of a different kind, demonstrating that braving the cruelties of life can require as much courage and wit as facing down a dragon or defying the gods of Death. From the age of 6 Fitz begins leaves behind everything he knows and loves and begins his training to be the King's tool, becoming disciplined in loyalty as much as the stealthier arts of being his eyes and ears and sometimes his knife.
Even the magic in Farseer is politically charged which adds an interesting tension throughout the story. Hobb's writing is so natural and honest as you follow the path of this precocious youngster through trials that would quail most men. The characters are deep and richly developed, and watching Fitz grow shaped by his unusual role is in turns fascinating and heartbreaking.
While it's no grimdark tale, it can be dark and unsettling. One of my favorite elements is how it features heroes who falter, epic deeds that fail, and motives so very true to human nature. Winner of fantasy awards internationally and at home, Farseer is a trilogy not to be missed. A den of thieves is not where I'd look for salvation from a world of ash and ruin, but that is exactly what you'll find here. The first incarnation of the Mistborn series, which includes The Final Empire , The Well of Ascension , and Hero of Ages winner of the Whitney Award for best speculative fiction , is one of my all-time favorites.
It begins with the end we all fear: what if the hero fails and the villain rules the world? Allomancy, the magic here, makes good sense and doesn't make you wonder, "why don't they just" like some fantasy books that leave the door wide open with only imagination for limitation; I'm looking at you, Lisa McMann! I don't want to give too much away, but just when you think you understand what is really happening, Sanderson pulls the rug out and you're left to re-think everything. He goes on to break the boundaries of Fantasy by moving ahead years in time, busting through the age-old question: why is EVERY fantasy essentially set in the Medieval era?
He creates a whole new story in the same world, but the pace of time has swept civilization on to the brink of technology. Think Steampunk meets Cowboy Mystery is that even a genre? Religious and cultural carryover from the original series, and allomantic abilities consistent with the original let you know you're still in the same space, but it has a completely different feel. It's a light, funny read, full of heroic capers, while creating a captivating mystery. Sanderson has stated his intention to continue the series pushing ahead another several hundred years into Urban, and ultimately Space Fantasy trilogies.
Definitely something to watch for! Told from the perspective of the unicorn herself, this novel is as much satire as it is fairytale. The journey begins when she overhears a conversation insinuating that the unicorns are probably gone out of the world, and maybe they were only ever fantasy. Her journey is full of wonderfully imperfect characters; even the unicorn is vain and at times proud to a fault. King Haggard is clearly depressed and harms out of selfishness rather than because he is some embodiment of evil like in so many stories of the genre.
It is a delightful, relaxing read, but that doesn't mean it's insubstantial. Beagle's descriptions are vibrant and tangible. Undercurrents of social commentary thread the humor woven throughout, and the ending isn't a neat and tidy Disney finale. While it can't tout a long list of literary awards won, it has made numerous readers' choice lists, including being proclaimed as 5 on the Locus list of "All Time Fantasy Novels.
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The Deed of Paksenarrion. Paksenarrion is well, becomes a badass paladin in a world of dwarves, elves, and gods. She is farm girl turned mercenary with strong ideals, willing to do whatever it takes to fight for what is right. With background as a US Marine, Moon creates a vivid world, realistic military battles, gruesome torture descriptions, and a sense of the more humdrum side of soldiering. If you aren't a fan of high fantasy, where there are extremes of both good and evil, this may not be your cup of tea.
For those who love a heroic tale of sacrifice, courage, and gut-wrenching loss, it is absolutely worth it. It is rare to find a book that allows for divine intervention without feeling preachy or didactic, but Moon manages it easily. Add to that a strong, realistic, female heroine, and you have one of the best heroic fantasy tales of all time.
The Stormlight Archive. Yeah, yeah, I know he's been mentioned already, but this series is just so innovative it deserves to be on the list regardless. It's not finished yet, but the final volume is due sometime soon, and as The Way of Kings has already won two Whitney awards it's looking to be a contender for the Hugo awards as a complete series next year.
It's Sanderson, so the world building is incredible, you have fully developed magic and political systems, you never know what you think you know, and the characters matter to you intensely. What's unique about this work is how he's created and brings to light what he's termed elsewhere "The Cosmere," an alternate universe wherein nearly all his fantasy works reside. In The Stormlight Archives we encounter certain personalities that cross over to reveal a bit more about who they might be in the grander scheme of things.
This massive over-arcing story is only slowly being revealed, and may not be fully revealed until the author's death, but it's an unprecedented attempt. Every novel is written from multiple viewpoints, each revealing a completely different perspective of the tale. Kaladin clearly suffers from depression, incredibly well-written as a broken hero. Shallan is bisexual and her meek disposition contrasted with her hidden scheming ambitions make for great reading. Dalinar appears to be slowly losing his mind. Each of these pioneering moves in fantasy deserves recognition, and together they make for a powerhouse.
This series began humbly with Blood Song as a self-published ebook but has won rave reviews from the start, though its companions have a very different feel and tend to garner a lackluster response as a result. Blood Song is structured as a skillfully written flashback, and despite knowing approximately where the trail will lead, Ryan keeps the tension high as you find your way through the wilds of Vaelin's youth.
Grueling trials in survival and combat shape him into a man fueled by rage at being deprived his birthright, fanned higher by the intrigue and lies unearthed throughout. The camaraderie that develops between the initiates of the order is inspiring, though Ryan shaves no corners off the grit of the toll war takes both physically and psychologically. If there is fault to be found it is that the protagonist evolves to be almost too powerful, overcoming what would be his biggest foes almost too easily, but the story itself is well-crafted, creating a novel you don't want to set down!
Wheel of Time. This is a collection that needs to be on the list despite its flaws. In Jordan's defense, with fourteen volumes, each fleshing out to pages plus his somewhat formulaic methods of describing characters serve the important purpose of reminding us who everybody is and what's driving them in this increasingly large and complicated cast of characters. Though the writing is weak at times, the magic system is intriguing, the world is elaborate and well-fleshed out, the characters are entertaining and evolve as the story unfolds, and the politics at work are so involved, it was worth seeing through to the end.
The Wheel of Time is the quintessential heroic fantasy employing the farm boy archetype, though Rand's role is just one point on which the story turns. The five teens who start out from their village each have an epic evolution into increasingly interesting heroes which keeps you engaged and invested in each storyline. Even though it kind of drags in the middle of the series, skim if you have to, but make it to the end. Jordan's untimely demise ended up working out well for this story as the very talented Brandon Sanderson took over the final three volumes, which livened up the pace, answered our burning questions, and reminds readers of why they started on this journey to begin with!
Chronicles of Amber. The world created here by Zelazny is mind-bending. It opens in "modern" day USA but swiftly transports us to the world of Amber where we learn that our reality is but one shadow of the many cast by the true realms. The unfortunate depiction of women can be off-putting, but can be regarded as an artifact of the time when it was written. Amber brings so much to the fantasy table in terms of innovation almost touching sci-fi while staying anchored in the magical seat of fantasy, that it needs to be represented here regardless.
Struck with amnesia, our hero discovers he is one of fourteen ruthless princes and princesses vying for the throne of their father, Oberon. Being of the Royal blood of Amber grants Corwin the ability to travel between the shadows and alter reality. With plot twists as labyrinthine as the Pattern, the story pulls you along one incredible ride.
Kan Savasci: a legend, a warrior, a mage… hero and villain. Tears of a Heart marks the tale of a young man, Aeden, who unwittingly shapes the world. The writing is beautiful, layered, and timely. Chase Blackwood weaves an intricate tale that hints at so much more. And that may be its greatest challenge. Tears of a Heart, the first book in the series, was beautifully written, and interesting.
It shows us an amazing world filled with detail and depth, but for a portion of it, just a touch slow. The writing, such beautiful writing, overshadows this, as does the ending. Tower of the Arkein , the next book in the series, is where the story truly begins to unfold, and where Chase Blackwood shines as an author. It is fast paced, full of action, adventure, and love. A very strong entry in the fantasy genre, and if the next book is equally as good, expect it to make quite a splash. You can buy on Amazon now.