High Sensitivity Magnetometers

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High Sensitivity Magnetometers

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NV center consists of nitrogen substitutional defect and carbon vacancy. Reprint with permission from [19]. Reproduced with permission. When negatively charged, the NV center has total six electrons i. Four of them form pairs and the remaining two unpaired electrons make spin triplet states i. Sensing magnetic field i. Electronic properties of diamond NV center. The spin triplet ground states are used to realize a spin qubit for the magnetic field sensing. The optical response of the NV center varies depending on its spin states. The spin-sensitive fluorescence and spin-flip transition allow optical readout of the spin states as well as optical initialization of the qubit state [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ].

The energy levels of NV center are located well within the bandgap of diamond i. Thus, the NV center has exceptionally long spin coherence times even at room temperature [ 20 ] e. In addition, the NV spin is highly sensitive to various fields, including temperature, magnetic, electric and strain fields [ 18 ].

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Higher sensitivity can be also possible using either NV ensembles [ 21 ] e. The high magnetic field sensitivity is one of the key ingredients of realizing novel magnetometer introduced in this chapter. In this section, we will discuss various sensing methods specifically designed to study magnetism in different spectral regimes from static spin distributions to high frequency magnetic excitations. Sections 3.

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The section ends with a brief outlook on advanced sensing techniques Section 3. Probing static field from magnetic textures or current flow in transport devices is an important capability to study microscopic magnetism in condensed matter physics. The diamond NV centers already have been used to study a diverse set of magnetic systems including skyrmions [ 23 ], superconducting vortices [ 24 , 25 ], domain walls [ 26 ], magnetic nanowires [ 27 ], and steady-state current distributions in graphene [ 28 ].

Various experimental methods have been implemented to detect static dc magnetic field and we will examine the two most common protocols; continuous wave electron spin resonance CW-ESR and Ramsey interferometry. As seen in Figure 3b , the ground spin states of NV center are subject to change by external magnetic field via the Zeeman effect. Continuous wave of laser and microwave photons are used. The shift in frequency gives an information about the magnitude and direction of external magnetic field.

As seen in Eq. However, practical linewidth suffers from the power broadening due to continuous laser and microwave excitation. The power broadening problem can be avoided by using pulsed laser and microwave photons. Ramsey interferometry is one of the basic pulse techniques used to measure the free induction decay of a spin qubit.

Figure 5a shows Ramsey pulse sequences used in the NV measurement. The basic idea of Ramsey interferometry is very similar with Michelson interferometry. This works as a beam splitter used in the Michelson interferometry experiment. Under external magnetic field, the two spin states evolve together but with different phases each other and the amount of accumulated phase depends on the magnitude of dc field.

Sensing dc magnetic field based on Ramsey interferometry.

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Subset presents the FFT of the Ramsey signal showing three peaks corresponding to the detunings. The minimum detectable magnetic field and the sensitivity are written as. Figure 5b and c shows an example of the Ramsey measurement. Therefore, the beatings of three oscillations appear in the Ramsey signal Figure 5c which is defined as,. The fast Fourier transformation FFT of the signal also reveals three frequencies subset in Figure 5c whose shifts are used to probe static field.

The NV center can also detect ac magnetic field up to gigahertz. The large bandwidth sensing capability is important to study spin dynamics in solid-state systems and biological samples. Various sensing methods with its detection bandwidth are listed in Figure 6 and, in this section, we will explain two basic dynamical decoupling methods such as spin Hahn echo and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill CPMG. Detection bandwidth of various sensing methods.

NV center can measure magnetic field from dc to gigahertz ac frequency. Reprint with permission from Ref. Copyright Reviews of Modern Physics. This additional pulse flips the sign of accumulated phase during the free induction evolution resulting in the cancelation of dc and low frequency magnetic field. When the pulse duration matches to the period of ac magnetic field, however, the phase survives and continues to be accumulated. In this way, one can selectively probe ac magnetic field. Sensing ac magnetic field based on spin Hahn echo measurement.

This can be better viewed with the Bloch sphere representation shown in Figure 7b. And their difference is. The probabilities of the 0 and 1 states after a single echo sequence are obtained as,.

Compared to a monotonic exponential decay in Figure 8a , the first order Bessel functions discussed in Eq. The field sensitivity can be determined from the maximum change of the PL signal with respect to B AC. Examples of the Hahn echo measurement as a function of ac field strength. By adding more periodic microwave pulses in the sequence, one can extend the spin coherence time and realize improved sensitivity.

Such dynamical decoupling sequences are called XY4 or XY8. Sensing ac magnetic field based on CPMG measurement.

High Sensitivity Magnetometers

Hide details. Abstract : Two versions of an operational giant magnetoimpedance GMI -based magnetometer, one of which is capable of working in an unshielded geomagnetic field, has been design, built and benchmarked against a commercial fluxgate magnetometer. The sensing element consists of a detection coil, strongly coupled to the GMI wire, in a two-port configuration.

Its optimization is based on the surface impedance tensor of the sensing element, in which we include parasitic capacitance and geometric parameters of the coil.