Return of the Black Death: The Worlds Greatest Serial Killer

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Return of the Black Death: The Worlds Greatest Serial Killer file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Return of the Black Death: The Worlds Greatest Serial Killer book. Happy reading Return of the Black Death: The Worlds Greatest Serial Killer Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Return of the Black Death: The Worlds Greatest Serial Killer at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Return of the Black Death: The Worlds Greatest Serial Killer Pocket Guide.

We would like to contact you via email from time to time to seek feedback about ways in which we can improve My CABI such as adding or changing its functionality, new features and content. You can choose to delete your My CABI account from your profile page, in which case, all your information will be deleted from our servers. Don't have an account? You are claiming these items, please select your author name in each record.

Please select author name in each record! Close Find out more. Concurrency limit. Sign out. Search: Keyword Advanced Browse all content Thesaurus. Please use quotation marks for searching phrases e. Your products All Products. Browse by : Author Author Serial Subject. Enter author surname:. Display : 25 50 Previous record Next record. Actions Tools Choose a colour. In this book the authors analyse data and accounts about the Black Death which spread in Europe between and They conclude that the Black Death was not bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis and transmitted by rat fleas.

They claim that the disease is caused by an unknown virus that may Return of the black death: the world's greatest serial killer. Abstract : In this book the authors analyse data and accounts about the Black Death which spread in Europe between and They conclude that the Black Death was not bubonic plague plague Subject Category: Diseases, Disorders, and Symptoms see more details caused by Yersinia pestis yersinia pestis Subject Category: Organism Names see more details and transmitted by rat fleas.

They claim that the disease is caused by an unknown virus that may reappear at any time and they propose that this virus is closely related to the viruses that cause haemorrhagic fevers haemorrhagic fevers Subject Category: Diseases, Disorders, and Symptoms symptoms Subject Category: Diseases, Disorders, and Symptoms see more details see more details haemorrhagic fevers Subject Category: Diseases, Disorders, and Symptoms see more details.

The authors discuss the danger of emerging diseases that are transmitted from an animal reservoir and paint a scenario of the reemergence of the Black Death. They consider the conditions that would be required for such a disease to spread and the defence that could be made against it. The Plague Research Commission there showed the connection between humans, rats, fleas and Yersinia pestis.

The first were infected flea bites; the second the consequence of the spread of the bacterium up the leg into the inguinal lymph glands. The third pandemic was worldwide. It reached its furthest north in August when it killed the wife and grandchild of a dock labourer who lived on the south side of Glasgow. Four people were infected at the wake, and by the end of September there had been 16 deaths out of 36 cases.

Wakes were banned, houses and closes were whitewashed, and rats were hunted: 18 with plague were found. Medals were presented to hospital staff when the last patient had been discharged. The disease returned the following autumn, however, with nine cases in its original location, and one at a city-centre hotel, where infected rats were found. It was last imported in , when a foreign seaman on a ship docked in Govan fell ill. It has never been back, a welcome reduction in Scottish biodiversity. But rodents and their fleas have been more active elsewhere.

For example, the Gallup Indian Medical Center in western New Mexico saw 19 cases of bubonic plague and eight of septicaemic in Navahos between and A woodcutter developed bubonic plague and consulted a traditional healer. The patient died early next morning. The healer fell ill and died four days later, having infected his wife and son and another of his patients. They also died. In total eight of the 18 cases died. But only 8. Modern conditions are not right for a pandemic.

But they are still in place for panic. In , there was a pneumonia outbreak in Surat, in India, after torrential rains had caused the river Tapti to flood the city.

Books with a similar title

Plague was suspected. The doctors had already gone. We cannot rule out the possibility of militants purchasing the organism from a Kazakhstan company and releasing it in Surat. Whether it was plague is difficult to say: Yersinia pestis was never isolated from any of the cases. Orent takes a pessimistic view of bioterrorism and plague. She believes her ex-Soviet informants when they tell her that they discovered how to develop and grow particularly lethal strains of Yersinia pestis.

We should be sceptical about such claims, however. Orent reminds us of the malign influence of Trofim Lysenko on Soviet biology. His brand of Lamarckism made Soviet biology second-rate and it is taking a long time to recover.

Return of the Black Death: The World's Greatest Serial Killer

The Soviets were not alone in considering the military use of Yersinia pestis. Untreated plague has a high case-fatality rate 1 , 2. Plague represents an exotic disease in North America; it usually affects prairie dogs Cynomus luduvicianus and has eliminated large colonies of these animals in the northwestern United States. Although these animals are susceptible, it is believed that other rodents and their fleas are the reservoirs and spread the disease during epizoonotics and maintain the pathogen 4. Three forms of plague are known: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic.

Return of the Black Death: The World's Greatest Serial Killer

The bubonic form is most common and results from the bite of an infective flea. The bacillus enters through the bite, travels through the lymphatic system to the lymph nodes, and results in painful inflammation. The septicemic form occurs when the infection spreads through the bloodstream. The pneumonic form results from inhalation of aerosolized infective droplets and can also be transmitted between humans 1 , 2.

About the author

Bubonic plague, historically also known as Black Death, swept across Europe during the late medieval period in an epidemic that started in 5 — 9. The disease got its name from the deep purple, almost black discoloration of infected persons caused by subcutaneous hemorrhages. Wars, poverty, hunger, and malnutrition made Europe of the 14th century an ideal ground for plague epidemics. The disease became endemic and haunted the continent throughout the 14th—18th centuries.

Major outbreaks occurred in Italy in , London in , and Vienna in 5 — 9. It is not known where the pandemic started. It most likely originated in central Asia and was carried west by Mongols and traders along the Silk Road. It was imported to Europe through Crimea, from which it spread to Sicily. The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated to be 75 million 5 — 9.

Urban rat-borne plague has been controlled since the beginning of the 20th century by modern sanitation practices. Epidemics caused by rats transferred on ships to port cities are no longer a threat. However, the disease still occurs in rural areas because Y. The continuing potential for reemergence of plague is evident by reports of outbreaks of the infection in Africa and India. The World Health Organization reports 1,—3, new cases every year in impoverished rat-infested rural areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America 1 , 2.

However, an investigation has created some doubts about the nature of Black Death by implicating other possible causes such as Ebola-like viruses or other infectious agents Since , when plague appeared in Europe, and especially after , when syphilis was observed in Europe, theories on infectious and communicable diseases were formulated. Many scientists during these times developed ideas of contagion, which had an effect on public health regulations and the structure of cities.

Moreover, decisions on plague control during that period reinforced the idea of public health measures for prevention of infectious diseases, an idea that was previously vague. Since the 11th century, Venice, a naval and commercial power, had a special interest in the Eastern Mediterranean and later took advantage of the redistribution of the land of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade Gradually and through conflicts after this crusade, this city-state on the Adriatic Sea gained control of the Ionian Islands, Crete, and some coastal cities of mainland Greece and established a network of trading posts.

The islands of Corfu Greek name Kerkyra , Zante Zakynthos , Cephalonia, and Leukada were incorporated into the Venetian State in , , , and , respectively, and remained part of it until its demise in Our study investigates plague on the 4 islands during the 17th and 18th centuries. This period was selected because after the second half of the 17th century plague was observed only sporadically with limited epidemics.

Plague was last observed in Venice in , whereas in southeastern Europe, plague was observed until the 19th century During the early 18th century, changes took place in the Venetian health policies, and the strategic and economic role of the islands increased after the gradual loss of the great trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea. This location made them a gateway to and from the Ottoman Empire and a frontier of Venice to the East.

Could the Black Death (The Plague) Happen Again?

However, despite their proximity to mainland Greece, political and institutional differences were substantial between these islands and the neighboring Greek coast that was under Ottoman rule. Research regarding plague in this area has been limited. Moreover, comparisons of Venetian health policies regarding plague and their effectiveness on the Ionian Islands with those of neighboring Greece have not been made. The 4 large Ionian Islands, which were under Venetian rule, and the Greek peninsula, which was under Ottoman rule, during the period studied 17th and 18th centuries.

Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries

Our study had 4 goals. The first goal was to identify epidemics of plague that struck the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries. The second goal was to reconstruct the course of the epidemics.


  • Blind Rage.
  • Particle Board and Hardboard.
  • Black Death - New World Encyclopedia.
  • Green pastures, quiet waters : refreshing moments from the Psalms!
  • Electrical Principles III.

The third goal was to highlight differences in the prevalence of infection on the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries and discuss the epidemiologic status of the islands compared with that of the neighboring coast of the Greek peninsula. The fourth goal was to investigate and describe measures taken by the Venetian authorities on these islands against plague during the study period.

On-site research was conducted in the Venetian state archive Archivio di Stato di Venezia. Unpublished archival material dealing with the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries was investigated with emphasis on periods of epidemiologic crises. Additionally, several historical sources providing information about plague epidemics in the Mediterranean area during the 17th and 18th centuries were reviewed.


  • Septimania: A Novel?
  • Caffeine.
  • Europe since 1945 (Short Oxford History of Europe).
  • RELATED CATEGORIES;
  • Plumbs Veterinary Drug Handbook: Desk Edition.

This dissertation 13 reviews the subject historically. This article examines the subject from medical and epidemiologic points of view. Archival sources show that most cases of plague on the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries were imported from the neighboring coast of mainland Greece and ports in the southwestern Ottoman Empire.

Only 2 epidemics were imported from the trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea. Of 11 epidemics, 8 occurred during the 17th century and 3 occurred during the 18th century.